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  Most popular articles (Since January 17, 2017)

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Cadmium-induced hematological, renal, and hepatic toxicity: The amelioration by spirulina platensis
Mahrous Abdelbasset Ibrahim, Abdulrahman Hamdan Almaeen, Medhat Abd El Moneim, Hany Goda Tammam, Athar Mohamed Khalifa, M Nura Nasibe
January-April 2018, 1(1):5-13
Background: spirulina platensis (SP) is known as a valuable additional food and therapeutic agent. Objective: We investigate the protective effect of SP on cadmium (Cd)-induced hematological, renal and hepatic toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups. Group 1: received saline orally. Group 2: treated with SP orally for 28 days. Groups 3: treated with CdCl2for 28 days. Group 4: treated with CdCl2and SP for 28 days. Renal and hepatic damages were evaluated by investigating the renal and hepatic functions, oxidative markers, and histopathological changes. Results: There was a statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in Cd concentration in the liver and kidneys of G3 and a significant decrease with the administration of SP in G4. In rat hepatic and renal tissues, superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly reduced while malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly increased and significant decrease in RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit in Group 3 when compared to G1 and G2 (P ≤ 0.05), with improvements of these parameters in G4 when compared to G3. A significant increase was observed in plasma MDA level in Group 3 compared to control group and SP-treated group, and it was significantly decreased in G4 compared to G3. Conclusion: It can be concise that accumulation of Cd in liver and kidneys of rats is associated with remarkable alterations enzymatic activities of the antioxidant system. Our data suggested that lipid peroxidation was associated with Cd toxicity in both liver and kidney tissues. The oxidative damage in kidney and liver of rats induced by Cd is protected by SP.
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Estimation of stature from hand dimensions in North Saudi population, medicolegal view
Mahrous Abdelbasset Ibrahim, Athar Mohamed Khalifa, Hassan Abdelraheem Hassan, Hany Goda Tamam, Abeer Mohamed Hagras
January-April 2018, 1(1):19-27
Introduction: Estimation of individual's stature is an important parameter in the field of forensic anthropology. There is a scarcity of literature on the estimation of stature from hand dimensions among Saudi populations. Aim: To setup standard formulae to estimate stature from hand dimensions in Saudi population. Subjects and Methods: Three hundred and fifty participants in 20–30 years' age group were incorporated into a cross-sectional study. The research population included 150 males and 150 females as a study group, and 50 participants as a control group to test the accuracy of the formulae. Nine measurements of different hand dimensions (hand length, palm length, handbreadth, maximum handbreadth, and five phalanges lengths) and statures were taken. The simple linear regression equations and multiple linear regression equations with the explanatory variables were suggested as a statistical model to clarify the total variation in stature. Results: Statistical analysis indicated that the bilateral variations were insignificant for all the measurements (P > 0.05). The correlation between the stature and different parameters studied in males and females were found to be positive and statistically highly significant (P < 0.001). The highest correlation with stature was observed with hand length and palm length than the other variables. Linear and multiple regression equation for stature estimation were calculated separately for males and females. The derived equations were applied to the control group, and it was noticed that the percentage difference between true stature of the control and the estimated stature ranged from 0.01% to 0.12%. The multiple linear regression equation was more reliable than the simple linear regression equations. Conclusion: The findings of the present study have provided the regression equations from hand dimensions that can be used for predicting stature of adult Saudi population.
  1,877 309 -
Comparative evaluation of lip prints among Indian and African students
Surya Gunasekaran, Nazargi Mahabob, Somasundaram Elangovan, Suman Jhansi Lakshmi, Senthil Kumar Balasubramaniam, Deepika Rajendran
January-April 2018, 1(1):14-18
Introduction: Cheiloscopy is the study of characteristic pattern of elevations and depressions on labial mucosa. It is unique for every individual-like fingerprints and hence can be used to determine the sex and for personal identity. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare and to determine the distribution of lip print pattern among Indian and African students studying in KSR Educational Institutions, Tiruchengode. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on randomly selected 100 college students (50 Indian and 50 African) studying in KSR Educational institutions, Tiruchengode. The study included a total of 50 Indians (30 males and 20 females) and 50 Africans (30 males and 20 females). Materials used in the present study were bond paper, oil-free lipstick or matted lipstick, lipstick applying brush, and magnifying glass with light lip prints was taken on folded bond paper and analyzed using magnifying lens. Tsuchihashi's classification of lip prints was used, and statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: Our study showed that Type II was the most predominant pattern among Indian males, and Type III was the most predominant pattern among African males, whereas Type I was the most predominant pattern among both Indian and African females. Hence, these results confirm the uniqueness of lip prints for every individual and show its variation according to gender. Conclusion: Based on the lip anatomy and their prints, it is possible to find out the races. Further, research needs to be done among a larger population to prove lip prints as a promising tool for personal identification and to arrive at guidelines regarding racial predilection.
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Experience, education, and training impact on medicolegal knowledge, attitude, and practice
Ahmed Ibrahim Alyahya, Osama Said Ibrahim Elserafy, Faisal Mohammed Alzoubaidi, Osama Ahmed Abbas Moursi
January-April 2018, 1(1):1-4
Introduction: Medical practice is governed by four main principles: beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, and justice. To achieve and sustain the best medical practice, these four principles should be emphasized and appreciated at continuous medical training and education. Aim of the Work: The aim of the study was to analyze the medicolegal knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of the medical staff with the purpose of distinguishing the impact of experience, education, and training on medical practitioners' medicolegal KAP. Subjects and Methods: A self-structured questionnaire was prepared; 69 medical doctors and 16 nurses from different tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh province and various medical specialties participated in this survey. The survey incorporated demographic questions in addition to questions that specifically targeted the respondents' medicolegal KAP. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between years of experiences in relation to the individual parameters and the cumulative degree of KAP. When comparing KAP in relation to obtaining training and education on medicolegal issues, statistically significant difference was found between knowledge and their cumulative in relation to obtaining medicolegal training. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences were identified regarding attitude and practice in relation to obtaining medicolegal training. In addition, no statistically significant differences were found between KAP in relation to obtaining medicolegal education. Conclusion: The decline in the time resources provided for medicolegal training and education impacted negatively the medical staff medicolegal KAP. To develop medical staff medicolegal KAP, a structured educational and training programs on medicolegal issues should be integrated. Integrated continuous medical education and training programs will significantly increase the medical staff awareness levels and hence improve their KAP.
  1,667 288 -
Clinical benefits of magnesium sulfate in management of acute organophosphorus poisoning
Usama M Elbarrany, Mohammed A Mohamed, Samah F Ibrahim, Hisham A Elshekheby, Tarek AS Afify
May-August 2018, 1(2):30-34
Background: Organophosphorus (OP) poisoning is a common health problem. Its diagnosis depends on clinical findings. The main treatment of OP poisonings is atropine and oximes. However, new adjunct therapy such as magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has been introduced. Materials and Methods: To detect the effects of MgSO4, a case–control study was conducted on 100 patients intoxicated with OP compounds. All patients received standard care of treatment while half of them received MgSO4 given in a dose of 1 g/6 h for 24 h. Results: The given atropine and oximes doses, hospitalization period, and incidence of complications, especially cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory failure, and death were significantly reduced in Mg-treated group. Conclusion: Results suggest that magnesium could ameliorate OP toxic effects and could be considered in the management of patients intoxicated with these compounds.
  1,197 226 -
Knowledge and attitude toward organ donation among medical and nonmedical (Engineering) students in Bhopal, India
Shuchi Soni, Janmejaya Samal, Sumit Singh Baghel, Shailja Vaghela, Manish Singh Chundawat
May-August 2018, 1(2):35-40
Background: India is facing a massive dearth of organs for transplantation. Nationally, with a population of 1.2 billion people, the organ donation rate (ODR) per million population (PMP) for India stands at 0.26 PMP. Although limited knowledge is considered as one of the major factors for low donation rates, studies also quote that knowledge may not have any impact on positive attitude and practice toward organ donation. Furthermore, countries with presumed consent policy like the one in Spain and Croatia have much higher ODRs (36 and 36.5 PMP) as compared to India, which has informed consent policy. Objectives: The objectives of this study is to understand correlation between knowledge and attitude toward organ donation among medical and nonmedical students and identify barriers to deceased organ donation; to look into participant's perception for adoption of presumed consent policy in Indian context; and understanding the acceptance of donor acknowledgment in the form of organ incentivization. Materials and Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was carried out among the students of medical and engineering colleges. A total of 100 students from each institute were interviewed randomly constituting a total sample of 600 students. A pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting the data. The collected data were entered into Epi Info 7, and statistical tests were applied to find significant differences between two groups. Results: Of the total 600 students, 55.7% were male while 44.3% were female. The mean age of the study population was 19.73 ± 1.24 standard deviation years with majority of them (90.5%) under 21 years. Age and gender found to have a significant association with knowledge on organ donation. Study revealed a positive correlation between knowledge and attitude in both medical (r = 0.189) and nonmedical groups (r = 0.21). Almost 51.7% of students were in favor of adoption of Spain's “opt-out policy” policy, while 82.6% supported donor acknowledgment to increase the rates of organ donation in India. Most common source of information about organ donation identified in the study was television (71%), newspaper (38.5%), and doctor (33.7%). Conclusion: Positive correlation between knowledge and attitude suggests that a well-designed awareness campaign can improve attitude and practice toward organ donation, and successful examples from countries such as Spain and Singapore can be adopted in national context, to increase ODRs and saving millions of lives waiting for organs from deceased donors.
  1,210 198 -
A bitemark on ear
Neeta Sharma
May-August 2018, 1(2):41-43
Bitemarks are the tool marks left by the action of teeth and other oral structure during biting of the objects and people. Bitemarks can occur on both victims and the assailants. It has an important role in the identification of suspect, especially in cases of interpersonal fights, sexual assault, and child abuse. The key for successful bitemark analysis is the proper and timely collection of bitemark evidence following the standardized guidelines as bitemarks heal and fade with time. The consequence of improper forensic dental evidence collection leads to miscarriage of justice. Here, we present and discuss a case where medical intervention before collection of the bitemark evidence on the ear resulted in the failure of delivery of appropriate bitemark analysis and justice to the victim.
  1,111 217 -
Editor's Message
Ahmed Alyahya
May-August 2018, 1(2):29-29
  1,100 216 -
Screening of psychoactive components in fresh khat using direct analysis in real time-time of flight-mass spectrometry
Abdulrhman M Dhabbah, A Yacine Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ali I Alawi, Waleed Abdulaziz Al Angari, Basel F Alrayes
September-December 2018, 1(3):45-50
Background: Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a shrub endemic to East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula that is widely consumed for its psychoactive properties. Due to the increase of illicit drugs consumption in the world, there is a need for fast investigation techniques in order to rapidly characterize the huge number of seized samples. In the recent years, direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) proved to be a useful and convenient method which allows recording mass spectra of various samples without any preparation. Objectives: The present work describes a convenient procedure for rapid characterization of fresh Khat samples by identification of cathinone and cathine which are the most active constituents in different parts of the plant. Materials and Methods: A fresh sample of C. edulis was cut into small pieces with separation of leaves and stems; each part was investigated using DART-time-of-flight (ToF)-MS. The fresh samples were submitted to a stream of hot helium as vaporization and ionization gas, without any extraction or prior treatment. Results: The obtained spectra showed many peaks corresponding to the mass range from 100 to 600 Da. Cathinone and cathine which are known to be the main psychoactive components in C. edulis were found in all parts of the fresh samples; their protonated peaks appeared at 150 and 152 Da, respectively. The peak intensity of these two characteristic alkaloids was notably different between leaves and stems; it roughly decreased from lower to upper leaves, while their highest content was obtained in the upper stem. Conclusion: The present work showed that DART-ToF-MS is a powerful tool for fast investigation of real samples, particularly in the field of forensic sciences.
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A Study to estimate forensic age by kreitner and kellingaus main stages method from epiphyseal ossification of the iliac crest by digital radiography
Soumeek Chowdhuri, Riju Bhattacharjee, Saikat Das, Ritwik Ghosh
September-December 2018, 1(3):51-54
Objectives: The objective of this study is to establish the study of radiographs of the iliac crest epiphysis as a possible criterion for forensic age estimation, using Kreitner and Kellingaus main stages and substages method. Methodology: We scanned 157 participants, comprising 92 males and 65 females in the age bracket of 10 and 25, using X-ray in the Indian Bengali population. Results: Minimum, maximum, mean, and standard deviation were defined. Ossification appeared within the age bracket of 14–17 years, and complete bony fusion took place at the 20th year of life. Intra- and inter-observer agreements were determined by calculating the kappa coefficients. Conclusion: This study can be used for forensic age diagnosis, but its accuracy is limited when the medicolegally significant age of 18 years has to be determined.
  233 64 -
Measuring the awareness of emergency department physicians toward the management of medicolegal cases in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Mamdouh Kamal Zaki, Khaled Abdelfattah Bayoumi, Mohammed Ibrahim Rawas, Ziyad Nami Alshutayri, Ethar Adnan Kensarah, Ammar Mohammed Jamal, Mansour Ali Zughbi
September-December 2018, 1(3):61-67
Background: Worldwide, there is a great discrepancy between the hospital and forensic reporting. The medical team priority is saving the lives of victims especially in case of fatal or dangerous wounding. Hence, minimal documentation will be expected under these conditions. Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the awareness of emergency department (ED) physicians toward the legal and ethical aspects of the management of medicolegal cases, assessment of physical and sexual abuse, photo-documentation, and management of forensic evidence in emergency circumstances. This is the first study to investigate this critical topic in Jeddah City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methodology: The authors accomplished a cross-sectional study in EDs in major Jeddah hospitals during April–May 2017. The authors used a self-administrated questionnaire and used the Survey-Monkey engine and SPSS Statistics for data gathering and statistical analysis, respectively. Results: A total of 137 ED physicians from the main four general hospitals in Jeddah participated in the study. Most of the physicians were males. Most of the participants did not receive any training program in writing medicolegal reports in ED. About two-thirds of the respondents were certain that their workplace provided a specified protocol about collecting evidence from a medicolegal case until referral to forensic medical centers. On the other hand, 86.1% did not have any training program in evidence collection in EDs. Most of the participants believed that they needed more training programs concerning management of medicolegal cases at ED. Conclusion: Although the level of awareness is significantly high, more than half of the physicians considered that the current approach of medicolegal cases was inappropriate. Medical students and residents need more training programs in medicolegal reporting and chain of custody as well as for specialists and consultants.
  236 61 -
Effects of postmortem interval and cause of death on organ weights
Yosuke Usumoto, Keiko Kudo, Akiko Tsuji, Yoko Ihama, Noriaki Ikeda
September-December 2018, 1(3):55-60
Context: Visceral congestion is a characteristic autopsy finding of some causes of death, and the congestion changes the organ weight. Therefore, comparing the measured organ weights against standards can provide useful information. Aim: We sought to generate accurate organ weight standards according to the postmortem interval (PMI) and the cause of death, with particular focus on brain and lung weights. Settings and Design: Retrospective study. Cadavers and Methods: We included data from 489 (320 males and 169 females) forensic autopsy cases with known PMIs; within 4 days. We considered gender, age, height, body weight and PMI in our organ weight estimations. In addition, we used longitudinal (243 males and 131 females) and transverse (243 males and 130 females) skull diameters in constructing an equation for brain weight estimation. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test, Welch's t-test and stepwise regression analysis. Results: Causes of death such as intracranial injury and bleeding, intoxication and drowning tended to increase lung weight; other causes tended to decrease lung weight. When we focused on cases with 1-day PMI, the brain and lung weights increased with longer PMIs, probably due to the brain oedema and pulmonary congestion and oedema in the early post-mortem period. Conclusion: Ours was the first report on the increase of brain weight with the increase of PMI in the early postmortem period. Further studies on the effects of PMI and the cause of death on organ weight are required to expand our understanding on the mechanisms of death.
  206 63 -